Applied Chemical Engineering

       ISSN: 

2578-2010 (Online)

Journal Abbreviation:

Appl. Chem. Eng.

Applied Chemical Engineering (ACE) is an international open-access academic journal dedicated to publishing highly professional research in all fields related to chemical engineering. All manuscripts are subjected to a rigorous double-blind peer review process, to ensure quality and originality. We are interested inthe original research discoveries. This journal also features a wide range of research in ancillary areas relevant to chemistry. ACE publishes original research articles, review articles, editorials, case reports, letters, brief commentaries, perspectives, methods, etc. The research topics of ACE include but are not limited to:

  • 1. Analytical Chemistry
  • 2. Chemical Engineering
  • 3. Materials chemistry
  • 4. Material synthesis
  • 5. Catalysis
  • 6. Process chemistry and technology
  • 7. Quantum chemistry method
  • 8. Environmental chemical engineering
  • 9. Bio-energy, resources, pollution
  • 10.Reaction kinetics
  • 11. Nanotechnology and bioreactors
  • 12. Surface, coating and film
 

Starting from Volume 7, Issue 2 of 2024, Applied Chemical Engineering (ACE) will be published by Arts and Science Press Pte. Ltd. Please turn to the journal website for new submissions. Previous submissions will be still handled via the EnPress Publisher OJS.

Vol 7, No 2 (Published)

Table of Contents

Open Access
Original Research Article
by S Raja, Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa, Ghadir Kamil Ghadir, Hayder Musaad Al-Tmimi, Zaid Khalid Alani, Maher Ali Rusho, N. Rajeswari
2024,7(2);    462 Views
Abstract The field of 3D printed electronics has been rapidly growing in recent years, with the potential to revolutionize industries such as healthcare, aerospace, and consumer electronics. Polymer 3D printing has emerged as a promising technique for fabricating electronic devices due to its versatility, scalability, and cost-effectiveness. However, there are several challenges that need to be addressed in order to fully unlock the potential of polymer 3D printed electronics. This research paper discusses the current state of the art in this field, highlighting the current challenges and proposing potential solutions. These challenges include material selection, design considerations, printing techniques, and post-processing methods. In addition, the paper explores the limitations of existing polymer materials and presents recent advances in the development of new functional materials for 3D printing. Furthermore, the integration of various components and multi-material printing techniques are also discussed as key factors in advancing the capabilities of 3D printed electronics. Finally, this paper provides insights and recommendations for future research directions in order to fully realize the potential of polymer 3D printed electronics.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Vijaya Kumar Baksam, Saritha Nimmakayala
2024,7(2);    115 Views
Abstract Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the determination of EDO-S1 stereoisomeric impurities such as isomer 1, isomer 2, isomer 3, isomer 4, isomer 5, isomer 6 and isomer 7 with good resolution using the column, Bakerbond C18 (150 × 4.6 mm; 3 μm). The separation was achieved with mobile phase-A (10 mM dipotassium hydrogen phosphate pH-7.0 with 10% orthophosphoric acid solution in Milli-Q water) and mobile phase-B (n-Propanol: Acetonitrile ratio of 20:30 % V/V), which consisted of mobile phase mixture in the combination of moilephase-A: mobile phase-B (85:15). The total run time was 30 min at 0.8 mL/min flow rate, 20 µL injection volume and 30 ℃ column oven temperature. The column eluate was monitored at 210 nm to quantify the impurities The method showed adequate specificity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness inline to ICH tripartite guidelines. The limit of detection and quantification limits were 0.1 and 0.3 μg mL −1 , respectively, for all isomeric impurities and EDO-S1. The developed method was found to be linear over the concentration range of LOQ to 150% of specification range for isomeric impurities with a correlation coefficient >0.999. The method was precise (%RSD < 5.0), robust, and accurate (with 85%–115% recovery).
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Raja Subramani, Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa, Ghadir Kamil Ghadir, Hayder Musaad Al-Tmimi, Zaid Khalid Alani, Maher Ali Rusho, N. Rajeswari, D. Haridas, A. John Rajan, Avvaru Praveen Kumar
2024,7(2);    459 Views
Abstract 3D printing has rapidly evolved and matured in recent years, with a key factor being the improvement in printing materials. This paper compares the performance and applications of various 3D printing materials, including plastics, metals, ceramics, and biomaterials. Plastics remain the most widely used material due to their low cost and ease of printing, while metals are gaining popularity due to their superior mechanical properties. However, recent advancements in ceramic and biomaterials have opened up new possibilities for 3D printing in industries such as aerospace, healthcare, and electronics. The comparative analysis provides insights into the strengths and limitations of each material, and how they can be optimized for specific applications. With continuous developments in 3D printing technology and materials, the potential for this technology to revolutionize manufacturing and other industries is promising.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Ahmed Qays Abdullah
2024,7(2);    132 Views
Abstract Aiming at the problem of fast wear of machining tools in the special powder metallurgy valve guide rod hole and gasket seat of a certain engine cylinder head, in order to solve the technical problems in the cutting force (CF) of this kind of powder metallurgy materials, different tools are used and the analysis is carried out under different cutting test conditions. The cutting force law and surface roughness change law of similar powder metallurgy materials are determined to determine the appropriate tool materials and processing parameters. The experimental results show that under the same processing conditions, ceramic tools will suffer less than cemented carbide tools and cutting force can obtain a smaller surface roughness. In addition, the mass production process of valve seat, the blade material is ceramic knife.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Andrei Filippov, Oleg I Gnezdilov, Maiia Rudakova, Rustam Gimatdinov, Victor P. Arkhipov, Oleg N. Antzutkin
2024,7(2);    168 Views
Abstract This review paper presents the results of a study conducted using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods to investigate the dynamic behaviour of ionic liquid-based compositions in micrometre-spaced confinement. Ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) and other ionic liquid (IL) systems with nitrate anion in glass or quartz spaced confinement demonstrate anomalous cation dynamics that differ from those observed in bulk and in nano-confinement. It was demonstrated that the principal axis of the nitrate anion exhibits preferential orientation to the surface, akin to that in liquid crystals. It was shown that the cation translational mobility reversibly changes during exposure to a static magnetic field. This phenomenon was interpreted as a result of intermolecular structure transformations occurring in the confined ILs. The mechanisms of these transformations were discussed.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Lakshmi Kannappan, Rajmohan Rangasamy
2024,7(2);    167 Views
Abstract Chromene derivatives are naturally occurring heterocyclic compounds used as cosmetic agents, food additives, and potential biodegradable agrochemicals. Normally, its synthesis is carried out with three component/substrates with a suitable base. Dendrimer with amine functionality has several applications in catalysis, more specifically, dendrimers having enriched amino groups with accessible void makes a significant impact in base catalysis. Moreover, polar periphery of the dendrimers may enhance the solubility of material in the reaction medium. Therefore, herein we report the base catalytic efficiency of magnetite nanoparticle supported polyamine dendrimer with enriched amine groups and peripheral carboxyl groups. Actually, magnetite supported polyamine dendrimer synthesis involves the synthesis of PAMAM G3 on magnetite nanoparticle core, followed by reduction of amide group with subsequent functionalization of carboxylic acid terminals. Further, it is used as versatile polyvalent base for the synthesis of chromene derivatives. The magnetite supported dendritic scaffold has accessible voids and polar periphery which enables them dispersible in the reaction medium. The recycle efficiency study confirms, the competency of the material to work in industrial catalysis.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Raja Subramani, Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa, Ghadir Kamil Ghadir, Hayder Musaad Al-Tmimi, Zaid Khalid Alani, Maher Ali Rusho, N. Rajeswari, D. Haridas, A. John Rajan, Avvaru Praveen Kumar
2024,7(2);    811 Views
Abstract The use of biodegradable materials in 3D printing has gained attention due to its potential in addressing environmental concerns in the manufacturing industry. This paper aims to explore the current state of research and development in sustainable 3D printing using biodegradable materials. The research found that biodegradable materials, such as bioplastics, are being increasingly used in 3D printing as an eco-friendly alternative to traditional materials. Various types of biodegradable materials have been tested, including Polylactic Acid (PLA), cellulose-based materials, and starch-based materials. One of the main advantages of using biodegradable materials in 3D printing is its potential to reduce the carbon footprint of the production process. These materials are derived from renewable resources and have a lower environmental impact compared to non-biodegradable materials, such as petroleum-based plastics. However, the use of biodegradable materials in 3D printing also presents challenges, including limited availability and higher production costs, as well as the need for specific print settings and post-processing methods. Further research is needed to optimize the use of biodegradable materials in 3D printing and to develop new materials with improved properties. Collaboration between material scientists and 3D printing manufacturers is crucial to advancing sustainable 3D printing using biodegradable materials.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by EHOUMAN Ahissan Donatien, ABOKI-Koudjo Finafa Dèka Raïssa Hermione, OUATTARA Sheiddu, KOUAKOU Adjoumani Rodrigue, KOUAME Koffi Kan Raymond, YAO Benjamin
2024,7(2);    53 Views
Abstract The structure from which this study was carried out is a food processing company specializing in the transformation of crude palm oil into table oil. In order to comply with environmental standards when discharging the refinery's wastewater, it has its own wastewater treatment unit. The aim of this study is to contribute to environmental protection by recovering grease and bleaching earth through biogas production by anaerobic digestion. The characterization provided us with moisture, dry matter and volatile solids contents the values obtained are 32.31%, 67.69% and 97.57% respectively. In the same order, those for bleaching earth are 1.80%, 98.20% and 59.97%. The values obtained during the characterization of the bleaching earth are not conducive to good anaerobic digestion. To optimise biogas production from fat, we used inoculums such as cattle dung and broiler droppings. Biodegradability tests carried out with different proportions of substrates and inoculums led to the conclusion that the presence of a large quantity of microorganisms is necessary for optimum biogas production. In addition, the grease produced a good quantity of biogas when co-digested with the inoculums. The cumulative volume of biogas obtained over 30 days with the grease was 445 ml. The highest quantity of biogas obtained by optimising gas production is 780 ml.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Chaimaa Essiber, Said Akazdama, Bouchaib Bahlaouan, Said El Antri, Ghita Radi Benjelloun, Nadia Boutaleb, Mohamed Bennani
2024,7(2);    144 Views
Abstract The objective of this work is to valorize abundant illitic clay from Morocco in the treatment of industrial effluents likely to be loaded with synthetic dyes such as the textile, stationery, cosmetic, food, and also pharmaceutical industries. The penitential adsorbing of two dyes: methylene blue (BM) and malachite green (GM) was studied on this clay. Firstly, this clay was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis. And on the other hand, Effect of different parameters on adsorption kinetics has been studied, such as contact time, initial dye concentration, pH, salinity and temperature. Adsorption tests results showed that equilibrium was established after 30 min and the adsorption of the two dyes depends on the initial dye concentration and the pH. The results showed was the adsorption of the two dyes can be described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results indicate also that the process is a spontaneous endothermic physisorption characterized by disorder of the environment. This study shows that this raw, abundant and low-cost natural illitic clay can be valorized and exploited to treat effluents loaded with synthetic dyes.  
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Radhia Nedjai, Abdullah Al-Mamun, Md Zahangir Alam
2024,7(2);    131 Views
Abstract High turbidity is a pollutant that requires coagulants to be removed from treated water and wastewater. This study was conducted to characterize and analyze the potential of myco-coagulant-producing fungus isolated from the moist area of a kitchen. Myco-coagulant production was carried out using solid-state fermentation using coco peat as a substrate. One factor-at-a-time analysis (OFAT) was carried out to assess the capacity of the produced myco-coagulant in various initial turbidities and myco-coagulant doses. The potential of myco-coagulant was tested using turbid synthetic water with different turbidity levels (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 NTU). The results showed that turbidity removal by the myco-coagulant was influenced by the initial turbidity. The coagulant was less efficient at low turbidity levels, which was approximately 5% for 50 NTU, while the highest was 52% for 300 NTU water. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that myco-coagulant could remove the highest possible turbidities on day 6 with all initial turbidity values studied in this work. Different myco-coagulant doses ranging from 1 to 10% (v/v) were also used to determine the optimum dose for effective flocculation. The highest turbidity removal of 57% could be obtained at an optimum coagulant dose of 4% (v/v). Like any other commercial coagulant, the residual turbidity value increased at a coagulant dose higher than the optimum dose of 4% (v/v).
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Jyoti Monga, Niladry Sekhar Ghosh, Geeta Deswal, Ashwani K. Dhingra, Ajmer Singh Grewal
2024,7(2);    229 Views
Abstract The most prevalent malignancy among women is breast cancer, which had almost 1.3 million new cases in 2020. It is the second most common cancer in the world, followed by lung cancer. The survival rate would be 99% if the cancerous tumour was limited to the breast. If the cancer migrated to neighbouring lymph nodes, the survival percentage would be 85% and it would drop to 27% if it spread to distant regions. In fact, the most prevalent breast cancer subtype is that caused by excessive estrogen levels. The enhancement of pertinent treatment techniques depends on the estrogen receptors (ER) in both healthy and pathological conditions. There are two primary types of ER, ERα and ERβ, which are each encoded by a different gene. ER status is the most important indicator of breast cancer prediction. To develop novel therapeutics for breast cancer, 30 newly designed benzimidazole compounds targeting the ER were docked. Among them, a compound with a glide score of -9.293 was discovered to be the leading compound. ADME investigations provided additional validation of the docking results. The pyrazole fused benzimidazole nucleus is therefore suggested as a potential pharmacophore for the development of innovative anticancer treatment for breast cancer.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Andrey A. Sokolov, Vladimir A. Fomenko, Maria A. Aksenova, Nikita V. Martyushev, Boris V. Malozyemov, Manshuk F. Kerimzhanova
2024,7(2);    103 Views
Abstract The article describes the development of a methodology for radon pollution studies based on algorithms that take into account the influence of constant mountain-valley winds. The solved problem of the study of radon emanations arising from the stress-strain state of rocks is an important step in the study of man-made bulk arrays on the environment and the assessment of radiation safety. Decommissioned tailings dumps eventually dry up and turn into hardening man-made bulk arrays, which negatively affect the surrounding ecosystems. The proposed methodology is implemented on the basis of the proposed algorithms for determining the optimal choice of measurement conditions, taking into account the influence of constant mountain-valley winds. As an approbation of the methodology, field studies were carried out, including measurements of the equivalent equilibrium volume activity of radon-222 at various points of the tailings dump. For this purpose, specialized methods and devices were used, which made it possible to determine the concentration of radon in the air and evaluate its emanations from the tailings dump. The data obtained were processed and analyzed using specialized software and algorithmic software, which allows for a detailed analysis and evaluation of the values.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Fatemeh Mollaamin
2024,7(2);    207 Views
Abstract This research article aims to investigate six selected medicinal plants of Achillea millefolium (Yarrow), Alkanet, Rumex patientia (Patience dock), Dill, Tarragon, and Sweet fennel including some principal chemical compounds of achillin, alkannin, cuminaldehyde, dillapiole, estragole and fenchone. The definitive roles of these medicinal plants in Omicron treatment have been investigated through quantum mechanics and molecular mechanic methods. However, given the unprecedented challenges faced should be given a fair amount of consideration for contribution during this pandemic. In this work, it has been investigated the compounds of achillin, alkannin, cuminaldehyde, dillapiole, estragole and fenchone as a probable anti pandemic Omicron receptor derived from medicinal plants. Anti-Omicron drugs through the hydrogen bonding through physico-chemical properties of medicinal ingredients bound to the database amino acids fragment of Tyr-Met-His as the selective zone of the Omicron have been estimated with infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. A comparison of these structures has provided new insights for the design of substrate-based anti-targeting Omicron. Finally, five medicinal ingredients of achillin, alkannin, cuminaldehyde, dillapiole, and estragole bound to TMH have conducted to a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for evaluating the absorbance of these inhibitor-active site complexes. Here, we used the network pharmacology, metabolite analysis, and molecular simulation to figure out the biochemical basis of the health-raising influence of medicinal plants. This research article peruses the drug ability, metabolites and potential interaction of some medicinal plants with Coronavirus-induced pathogenesis.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Natalia Kamanina
2024,7(2);    77 Views
Abstract The classical and nano-structured spatial light modulators (SLMs) especially based on the polyimide photosensitive layers, as the key element of the optoelectronic, display, and telecommunications schemes are considered. A modulator’s basic characteristics are studied taken into account the comparison with the different types of the photo-layers, such as: ZnSe, ZnS, a-Si:H. Liquid crystal (LC) media is considered as the modulation system. It is indicated that the different methods and approaches are applied for investigation of the basic SLM parameters, such as: Z-scanning technique, third harmonic generation, four-wave mixing set-up, etc. In the current paper the laser holographic technique is used to investigate the resolution, sensitivity, and speed of the LC-SLM devices. As the main aspect, the influence of the fullerene doping on the organic photo-layers based on the polyimide materials is presented. This influence of this nano-structuration process on the modulator’s basic parameters is discussed. 
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Gopi Krishna Bhonagiri, Chandrima Roy, Himabindu V, Shilpa Chakra CH
2024,7(2);    140 Views
Abstract In recent days, a steady growth is being noted in hydrogen energy field owing to the global rise in population and increased energy demand. Fast depletion of fossil-based fuels and climate change issues are driving nations towards exploring an alternate energy resource. Hydrogen energy is one such an option owing to availability of simple and cost intensive technology involvement. Alkaline water electrolysis is one of the simplest ways of producing hydrogen utilizing renewable energy and oxygen as the only byproduct thus not contributing to carbon footprint. However, immediate attention is needed to minimize the cost of electrolyzer components, maintenance and energy. Commercial proton exchange membrane water electrolyzers (PEM) in market employ large capital cost due to high-priced Nafion and other PFSA membranes, titanium endplates and noble metal-based electrocatalysts. As a consequence, researchers are looking into the usage of Anionic exchange membrane (AEM) for water/alkali based electrolyzer for producing hydrogen with non-noble metal electrocatalysts and low-cost metal end plates. In this article a waste coconut shell derived biochar is explored as the carbon matrix for base of electrocatalysts to replace other high-cost carbon support for electrocatalyst in water electrolyzer. The structural and electrical properties of the coconut shell biochar are studied and compared with other available carbon supports. To deep drive in the electrolyzer performance this approach is further extended to MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly) level to study the metal free electrocatalyst behavior in real-time environmental conditions.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Abu Md. Mehdi Hassan, Muhammad Asif, Tariq Hussain, Rida Sajjad, Farzana Yasmin, Mayeen Uddin Khandaker
2024,7(2);    230 Views
Abstract Renewable and sustainable energy resources are the dire need of time for environmental sustainability and to minimize the effects of global warming and climate change. The objective of this study was to investigate the thermos-kinetic parameters of municipal solid waste through pyrolysis. The sample was collected and prepared according to the American standards for test materials. Thermogravimetric analysis showed the three distinct regions, while the maximum degradation occurs in the second region within the temperature range of 230–400 ℃. A model-fitting approach using the Coats Redfern model was applied in this region to perform thermo-kinetic analysis. Based on the kinetic analysis, the D3 diffusion model showed the highest regression coefficient with an activation energy of 16–18 kJ/mole among all three diffusion models. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the pyrolysis process is endothermic, the product has more energy and a well-ordered arrangement of molecules confirmed by the positive change in enthalpy values and negative entropy values. The results demonstrate the usefulness of municipal solid waste in the creation of productive methods for converting to energy.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Rajib Biswas
2024,7(2);    80 Views
Abstract The prevalence of heavy metal ion (HMI) contamination is increasing worldwide—hence posing a growing threat to both ecological and human well-being. In recent years, there has been significant research endeavors focused on the quantitative analysis of these heavy metal ions (HMI). There is an increasing demand for cost-effective, sensitive, selective, and speedy methods for detecting them. In the context of functional materials for detection as well as effective diminution of HMI, Glutathione is recognized as well as widely proven for its robust capacity to form complexes with harmful heavy metal ions, with its solubility in water, enduring action, and convenient accessibility. Consequently, glutathione is increasingly being utilized as a preferred molecular probe in the development of highly sensitive, cost-effective, and easily accessible sensors for the detection of these. Keeping in cue of the increasing use of Glutathione, this mini review provides a summary of the findings from different glutathione-based HMI detection approaches as documented in recent literature. These approaches are classified according to their respective techniques of signal transduction. The discussion and comparison of their operation and execution, as well as the evaluation of figures of merit such as limit of detection, selectivity, and response time, are presented. Likewise, removal mechanisms along with challenges are also briefed in this mini review.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Antypas Imad Rezakalla, Alexey Gennadyevech Dyachenko
2024,7(2);    109 Views
Abstract The research presented in this article has focused on the identification of the potential use of two methods: weight change analysis and swelling-weight balancing, to study polymer and silicone rubber samples at consistent temperatures for an extended period. This ensures the stability of these materials for future industrial applications. Throughout the research, it was determined that these methods allow for simultaneous observation of various processes to which the samples were exposed, including degradation and thermal oxidation. The analysis of the obtained results has indicated that a sample made of methylvinylsilicon rubber containing 2% vinyl by weight exhibited superior properties compared to other samples. These properties include a decrease in the rate of rubber chain bond breakage, resistance to various solvents, and improved mechanical characteristics.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by S Raja, Hayder Musaad Al-Tmimi, Ghadir Kamil Ghadir, Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa, Zaid Khalid Alani, Maher Ali Rusho, N. Rajeswari
2024,7(2);    338 Views
Abstract This paper presents an analysis of material selection and design optimization techniques to enhance the structural integrity of 3D printed aerospace components. The study highlights the importance of considering material characteristics and design factors such as shape, orientation, and support structures in order to achieve reliable and high-performance components. Various materials, including metals and polymers, commonly used in aerospace applications are evaluated, along with their properties and limitations in the context of 3D printing. Furthermore, the impact of different printing parameters on the structural integrity of the components is discussed. The study identifies optimization strategies such as topology optimization, lattice structures, and infill patterns, which can significantly improve the strength and durability of 3D printed parts. The results demonstrate the potential of these techniques to optimize the design and material selection of aerospace components, leading to lighter, more efficient, and reliable parts for air and space vehicles.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by S. Osipov, I. Komarov, P. Golosova, M. Oparin, M. M Shaikh
2024,7(2);    81 Views
Abstract The operating thermal power plants emit greenhouse gases which cause an undesirable greenhouse effect. One of the ways to reduce emissions of such gases is to create oxyfuel-energy units and use of carbon dioxide as diluent. However, for effective combustion efficient CO 2 /O 2 mixing is required which is possible only by employing external gas mixer. This paper presents the results of the gas mixer study design. Based on the results of numerical modeling of the flow of combustion components in the gas mixer it is established that the location of deflectors and diffusors plays important role in mixing of components in the mixing chamber.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Yilmaz Yurekli, Sadika Guedidi, Sacide Alsoy Altinkaya, André Deratani, Christophe Innocent
2024,7(2);    210 Views
Abstract Enzyme immobilized membranes combine catalysis and separation functions. Their application in large-scale continuous processes requires knowing the behavior under pressure. Also, the effects of enzyme location on the mass transfer limitation, membranes’ stability, and filtration performance should be investigated. In this study, urease (URE) and trypsin (TRY) enzymes were physically immobilized in/on the surface of a polyacrylonitrile (AN69) membrane through layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method using polyethylenemine (PEI) and sodium-alginate (ALG) as cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes respectively. URE, located on the membrane’s surface, degraded urea in a reaction-controlled regime, and its immobilization did not significantly change the hydraulic permeability. On the other hand, the TRY enzyme attached to the membrane’s pores reduced the permeability and degraded the BAPNA in a diffusion-controlled region. In TRY immobilized membranes, the conversion increased linearly with the transmembrane pressure, while in URE immobilized ones, conversion was maximum at 1 bar. Sandwiching the enzymes between two polyelectrolytes resulted in the highest catalytic activities. This configuration maintained most of the URE activity in the long-term filtration, but it did not help prevent TRY’s activity loss.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Rosy Paletta, Pierpaolo Filippelli, Sebastiano Candamano, Luana Galluccio, Angelo Macilletti, Yessica A. Castro, Antonio Tursi, Eurípides Amaro, J. Atilio de Frias
2024,7(2);    136 Views
Abstract Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a potential solution to valorize invasive pelagic Sargassum spp. Sargassum spp. (SP) biomass is characterized by a low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which, in addition to the presence of indigestible fiber, sulfide, salt, ash, and polyphenol content, are inhibitors to the AD process. Furthermore, its chemical composition depends on the season and region of harvesting. To increase biogas yields, biomass must be subjected to pre-treatment or an anaerobic co-digestion process with other waste biomass. In this paper results of co-digestion of Sargassum spp. and municipal solid waste (OFMSW) batches with different weight ratios are reported and compared with the mono-digestion of the two organic matrices. The objective is to provide an optimized SP to OFMSW ratio for the sustainable production of biogas in the Dominican Republic. Mono-digestion of Sargassum spp. showed the longest reaction time and the lowest biomethane yield as it lasted 30 days and provided a cumulative volume of biomethane equal to 79.68 NmLg −1 VS . The addition of OFMSW led to the shortening of the reaction time to 10 days and to the increase of the yield and cumulative volume of biomethane. It can be attributed to the more favorable C/N ratio, to the presence of more readily digestible compounds and lower ash content of those batches. The reaction kinetics of all the investigated batches is properly fitted by the Modified Gompertz model. The system with a Sargassum spp.-OFMSW weight ratio of 33:67 allows to obtain a notable bio-methane volume of 327.27 ± 15.93 NmLg −1 VS , ten times higher than from Sargassum spp. alone.  
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Open Access
Original Research Article
by Ronak Shah, Miguel Villagómez Galindo, Ana Beatriz Martínez Valencia, Anjula Gaur, Víctor Daniel Jiménez Macedo, Pavithra G, Abhinav kumar, Ankit Oza, Hitesh Bhargav, Narendra Makvana, Kaushik Patel
2024,7(2);    302 Views
Abstract The use of biomass is becoming increasingly important as an alternative energy resource for developing countries. In India, various Chula or biomass Gasifier stoves are utilized in various restaurants, including kitchens and roadside tea stands. These Chula or existing biomass Gasifier stoves have higher smoke emissions as well as lower thermal efficiency. Therefore, sustainable design and performance evaluation of biomass Gasifier cookstoves are required. IDBG cookstove has an inner diameter, outer diameter, and height of 19 cm, 21.5 cm, and 45 cm used for experimentation. Wooden blocks, Charcoal, and Animal dung were used as feedstocks with three repetitions of experimentations. The present case study illustrated the design and analysis of an inverted downdraft Biomass gasifier (IDBG) cook stove. It was tested in climate conditions of A D Patel Institute of Technology, Anand, Gujarat, India. Animal Dung found outstanding performance compared to other feedstocks, such as wooden blocks and Charcoal, with a thermal efficiency of 11-20% from the experiments. It has also been found that smoke emission of up to 20 to 40% is reduced using the IDBG cookstove. The current research has concluded that the IDBG cookstove reduced smoke emissions and improved thermal efficiency.
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Open Access
Review Article
by Ritu Rathi, Simrandeep Kaur, Hitesh Chopra, Manpreet Kaur, Sandeep Kumar, Inderbir Singh
2024,7(2);    135 Views
Abstract The controlled-release drug delivery systems have risen dramatically allowing various factors such as the prohibitive cost of developing new entities, the expiration of existing international patents, and the discovery of new polymeric materials suitable for prolonged drug release and improvement in therapeutic efficacy. Microsponges are the porous microspheres-based polymeric delivery system that allows controlled drug release at a specific site. Microsponges are developed for the efficient delivery of active ingredients at a low dose. They help in improving stability by modifying drug release kinetics, reducing side effects, and enhancing the retention of drug entities. Microsponge compositions are stable throughout a wide pH and temperature range, making them more compatible with numerous vehicles, and ingredients. Several studies have shown that microsponges are non-irritant, non-toxic, non-mutagenic, and non-allergic with self-sterilizing properties. They are typically used for topical administration but have lately been used for oral, vaginal, and colorectal administration as well. The current review contains basic information about microsponges, their method of preparation, and various characterization parameters. The review also discusses the application of microsponges in vaginal and colorectal diseases. The latter portion of the script includes various patents and preclinical trials.
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Open Access
Review Article
by Saleh Alkarri
2024,7(2);    56 Views
Abstract This study investigated the anti-microbial efficacy of Nouvex N950-9010 MB, an organic-based master batch, when integrated into polypropylene (PP) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The focus centers on its effectiveness against two common bacterial strains: E. coli K-12 MG1655 and S. aureus ATCC 6538P. The master batch was compounded at a 5 wt.% loading concentration with PP and HDPE, and was utilized to create monolayer and multilayer films. The findings reveal significant anti-microbial activity at both 4-hour and 24-hour intervals. SEM analysis confirmed homogeneous mixing and optimal adhesion within the films. Thermal stability, assessed via DSC and TGA, remained consistent, with variations within experimental error margins. Surprisingly, FTIR results indicated no substantial differences between modified and unmodified materials, suggesting that Nouvex N950-9010 MB. preserves material integrity. Mechanical properties, including Izod impact and tensile strengths, remained stable in the modified materials. Moreover, the modified PP and HDPE exhibited improved oxygen and water vapor barrier properties (OTR and WVTR) compared with their neat counterparts. UV spectra validated the non-leachability of Nouvex N950-9010 MB, aligning with the manufacturer’s claims. A groundbreaking revelation from the study is that this master batch functions via reactive oxygen species (ROS), marking a pioneering discovery in the field of novel anti-microbial agents. The research demonstrates Nouvex N950-9010 MB’s potential as a powerful and safe solution for antimicrobial applications, opening new avenues for further exploration and practical implementation.
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Open Access
Review Article
by Sumit Kumar, Priyansh Kumar Utsuk, Ravinder Kumar, Prashant Tevatia
2024,7(2);    88 Views
Abstract An amino acid and a carbonyl molecule are combined to generate Schiff bases complexes, which are useful compounds. Catalytic activity is high in many metals Schiff base complexes, especially chiral ones. Examples of processes include epoxidation, aldol condensation, hydroxylation, and oxidation. In several activities and in the presence of moisture, complexes display considerable catalytic activity. They have antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antimalarial, anticancer, and anti-HIV properties, among other biological activities. Research into these compounds’ coordination behavior has exploded because of specific metals on them, their biological activity and their intrinsic chemical interest as multidentate ligands. This article provides an overview of the numerous syntheses and uses for Schiff bases and their metal complexes.
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Open Access
Review Article
by Chel-Ken Chiam, Zykamilia Kamin, Chi Huey Ng, Farhana Abd Lahin, Rosalam Sarbatly
2024,7(2);    137 Views
Abstract Cellulose is a natural polymer and most abundant organic substance on Earth. Inexhaustible hydroxyl groups on cellulose surface allow derivatives of cellulose produced. This article discusses the recent progress of cellulose and cellulose derivatives in membrane development for oil/water separation. Functional groups that are available on the cellulose and its derivatives provide modification features to improve membrane wettability. Membranes with super wetting properties possess remarkable self-cleaning ability which in turn can enhance permeation fluxes and extend membrane lifespan. However, the role of cellulose-based membranes in oily wastewater treatments are still an early stage. This review article emphasizes on the development and modification of cellulose-based membranes for improvement of wettability, flux and separation efficiency, and the future directions of research.
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Open Access
Review Article
by Tubai Ghosh, Sougata Santra, Grigory Zyryanov, Brindaban C. Ranu
2024,7(2);    99 Views
Abstract Sigmatropic rearrangements are well documented in the carbocyclic as well as heterocyclic chemistry. Various molecules have been obtained from easily accessible starting materials via involvement of sigmatropic rearrangements. This review presented a brief account of the synthesis of some important heterocyclic compounds and their functionalization involving sigmatropic rearrangements, particularly, [3,3]-, [2,3] and [1,5]-ones. The mechanism of some rearrangements has also been discussed.
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Open Access
Review Article
by Aparna Das, Ram Naresh Yadav, Bimal Krishna Banik
2024,7(2);    112 Views
Abstract Microwave-induced organic methods are extremely useful in synthetic organic chemistry for the preparation of molecules. A combination of irradiation and high temperature is probably responsible to obtain the final product in an accelerated process. This review focuses on a crucial nucleophilic reaction using hydroxy beta-lactams as the starting compounds. Specifically, the reaction of cis-  and trans -hydroxy beta-lactams with different types of glycals under microwave irradiation using iodine as the catalyst is explored. This reaction produces unstaturated glycosides through Ferrier Rearrangement.
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Open Access
Review Article
by Hosam M. Saleh, Amal I. Hassan
2024,7(2);    504 Views
Abstract Energy is both a fundamental necessity and a driving force behind human activities. Throughout history, energy consumption has steadily risen, evolving from basic needs like food and fire for early humans to complex industrial and technological requirements today. Transitioning to a sustainable energy system requires a policy framework that empowers developing nations to promote green industries, diversify their sectors, and accelerate growth while addressing climate change and related challenges. In response to the urgent need for a global transition towards sustainable energy sources, this research explores the pivotal roles of technology, research, and policy in advancing renewable energy solutions. Motivated by the growing environmental challenges associated with conventional energy sources, the primary goal of this study is to shed light on the multifaceted strategies that facilitate the widespread adoption of renewable energy and contribute to mitigating climate change. Through an extensive analysis of renewable energy technologies, research contributions, and policy frameworks, this research uncovers critical insights. Our findings reveal how technological innovations have revolutionized renewable energy sources, making them more efficient, affordable, and scalable. Furthermore, research efforts have identified new opportunities and addressed technical challenges, while also assessing the environmental and societal impacts of renewable energy adoption. Crucially, this study underscores the indispensable role of policy in driving renewable energy transitions. Governments worldwide play a pivotal role in incentivizing renewable energy development through financial incentives, regulatory mandates, and research and development support. Moreover, these policies aim to promote energy efficiency, conservation, and equitable access to sustainable solutions. The results of this research emphasize that the transition to renewable energy is not only a viable solution to climate change but also an opportunity to create green jobs, enhance energy security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The potential for a sustainable future powered by renewable energy is within reach, and this study serves as a guidepost for realizing this transformative vision.
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Open Access
Review Article
by S. K Osipov., V. P Sokolov., I. A Milyukov., A. N Vegera., M. M Shaikh.
2024,7(2);    97 Views
Abstract Due to the global warming and strict environmental regulations encourages researchers to develop efficient combustion system that produce low level of harmful gases. This article focuses on review of different studies and experiment carried out in the sphere of oxy-fuel and air fuel combustion. In order to compare the results of oxy-fuel and air fuel combustion and find a suitable and efficient combustion system.
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Announcements

This journal will be jointly published by Enpress Publisher and Arts and Science Press (https://ojs.as-pub.com/index.php/index/index).

This journal will be jointly published by Enpress Publisher and Arts and Science Press (https://ojs.as-pub.com/index.php/index/index).
Posted: 2024-01-25
 

ACE is included in CAS databases!

Posted: 2023-12-11
 

Publication frequency becomes quarterly

Posted: 2023-09-12
 
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